Computational protocol: Additively Manufactured Open-Cell Porous Biomaterials Made from Six Different Space-Filling Unit Cells: The Mechanical and Morphological Properties

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[…] For morphological characterization, we scanned the titanium scaffolds using a micro-CT (Quantum FX, Perkin Elmer, Waltham, MA, USA). The scans were made under tube voltage of 90 kV, tube current of 180 μA, scan time of 3 min, and resolution of 42 μm. The 3D images of the porous structures were automatically reconstructed using the in-built software of the micro-CT. The reconstructed images were then transferred to the Caliper Analyze 11.0 (provided by the manufacturer) to align the geometry along the major axis of the specimens and to acquire 2D slices. The 2D slices contained transverse views of the scaffolds, i.e., circular cross-sections. The 2D slices were then imported into the ImageJ 1.47v ( in order to create region of interests (ROIs) and segment the titanium volume using the optimal thresholding algorithm available in the boneJ [] plugin of ImageJ 1.47v (16 bit images). Segmented images were then exported to the boneJ plugin to calculate the ratio of the void volume to the 3D ROI volume that was ultimately reported as the structure relative density of the porous structures.In addition, the Archimedes technique and dry weighing were used for determining the structure relative density of the specimens () using five specimens from each porous type of porous structure, except for the case of rhombic dodecahedron unit cells that only 2 samples were used for measurement of the Archimedes porosity values. In both cases, an OHAUS Pioneer balance was used for weight measurements that were performed in normal atmospheric conditions in room temperature. As for the dry weighing, the weight of the porous specimens was divided by the theoretical weight of the corresponding solid specimens assuming a theoretical density of 4.42 g/cm3 for Ti6Al4V-ELI []. In the Archimedes technique, the specimens were weighed both in dry conditions and in pure ethanol to determine the actual and macro volume and calculating overall porosity of the porous structures. […]

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