Computational protocol: Trabecular bone structural parameters evaluated using dental cone-beam computed tomography: cellular synthetic bones

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[…] The specimens were scanned in air to reduce the interference of surrounding materials in the CBCT and micro-CT analyses. A dental CBCT device (AZ 3000, Asahi Roentgen, Japan) was used to generate dental CBCT images of each specimen. The scanning parameters were set to 85 kV, 3 mA, a rotation step of 0.7°, and a voxel resolution of 100 μm. The dental CBCT scanning images were archived using the DICOM file format and 16-bit grayscale units. Micro-CT images of each specimen were obtained using the SkyScan 1076 micro-CT (SkyScan, Aartselaar, Belgium). The scanning parameters were set to 48 kV, 149 uA, a rotation step of 0.4°, and a voxel resolution of 17.24 μm. The scanned raw micro-CT images were archived using the TIF file format and 16-bit grayscale units. After scanning, the raw micro-CT images were imported into an imaging reconstruction software program, NRecon 1.6.9 (SkyScan, Aartselaar, Belgium). During the reconstruction step, the level of beam hardening correction was set at 100% to reduce inhomogeneous grayscale representation in the micro-CT images.Regarding the micro-CT and dental CBCT approaches, the images were imported to ImageJ 1.46r (Rasband, W.S., ImageJ, U.S. National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA). The BoneJ 1.3.9 program [] was applied to measure the 4 trabecular bone structural parameters: BV/TV, BS/BV, Tb.Th., and Tb.Sp. (Table ). Before analyzing the trabecular bone parameters, both the CBCT and micro-CT images processed filtering, thresholding, and binarizing steps. In filtering step, contrast and despeckle filters were applied. In the thresholding step, the “optimized threshold” method of the BoneJ program was applied to determine the threshold that yielded minimal connectivity levels. The voxel-counting method was applied to analyze the bone volume and total volume. Regarding the bone surface analysis, triangular surface mesh (2 pixels of side length) was applied. During the Tb.Th. and Tb.Sp. analyses, the diameter of the largest sphere that fit within the structure or hollow space was measured. […]

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