Computational protocol: A Reduction in Maximal Incremental Exercise Test Duration 48 h Post Downhill Run Is Associated with Muscle Damage Derived Exercise Induced Pain

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Protocol publication

[…] The number of participants required for this study was determined a priori with an alpha level of 0.05 using a 2 tailed t-test for the main outcome measures of TTE and muscle soreness using Power Analysis and Sample Size Software (PASS) version 13.0 (NCSS, LLC, Utah, USA). Group sample sizes of 10 for the control group, and 40 for the experimental group, achieved 99 and 94% power to detect minimum worthwhile effects of 30 s (TTE) and 15 mm (muscle soreness) respectively. Analyses were completed using the statistical software package IBM SPSS Statistics version 19.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL, USA) and graphs created using SigmaPlot version 12.3 (Systat Software Inc, CA, USA). For descriptive purposes the mean and standard deviation have been used to report the central tendency and dispersion of the observed data where normally distributed, and the median and range were used where not normally distributed.Data obtained in visit 2 (pre 1) and visit 3 (pre 2) were used for reproducibility analyses. Combinations of statistical methods were chosen in order to compare reproducibility between different measures and different studies. First systematic bias was tested using two-tailed dependent t-tests. Absolute measurement error was determined using repeated measures CV. The CV (expressed as a percentage) was calculated by dividing the standard deviation of the differences by the square root of two and dividing the answer by the grand mean (Hopkins, ). Relative reliability was determined using a two-way random model intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), which is a measure of the ratio of between-subject variance to within-subject variance.Only the data obtained from visit 3 (pre 2) visit 4 (intervention), visit 5 (24 h post) and visit 6 (48 h post) were used for subsequent experimental analyses. Independent t-tests were used to check there were no significant differences in visit 3 (pre 2) between the control group and experimental group. Linear mixed models were chosen to determine if there were any differences in the dependent variables between CON and EXP across trials. This type of analysis was preferred as it allows for missing data and can specify different covariate structures for repeated measures data. First fixed and random factors for the linear mixed model were fit for each dependent variable and the main effects for trial, group and the interaction effect (trial x group) were analyzed by plotting the mean values. The most appropriate model was chosen using the likelihood ratio test. This method uses the χ2 critical test statistic to decide which model is the best fit based on the change in the −2 restricted log likelihood of two nested models. Second, normality and homogeneity of variance of the residuals were checked using quantile-quantile plots and scatter plots respectively, and deemed plausible in each instance. Pearson's r was used to examine the relationship of TTE during visit 6 (48 h post) with EIP, soreness, VA, and MVC during visit 5 (24 h post) and visit 6 (48 h post). Chi square analysis was used to investigate the association between group (EXP and CON) and termination of the MIE due to “pain” during visit 6 (48 h post). Data were analyzed separately by sex to investigate whether there were any significant differences between males and females. However, as there were no significant differences between males and females (p ≥ 0.23) the data set was collapsed for the final analyses. Additionally, age was entered into the model as a covariate, but as this did not make any significant difference it was removed for the final analyses to increase statistical power, and satisfy the principal of parsimony. One participants data for RPE was removed from analysis as it was unusually low throughout all trials (10, 11). However, it was clear from this participants physiological data (e.g., V·O2, V·CO2, V·E etc.) that a maximal effort was provided. Nevertheless, despite familiarization, this participant was clearly unable to convey their true perception of effort, and subsequently their RPE data has been omitted. The two-tailed alpha level for significance testing was set as p ≤ 0.05. […]

Pipeline specifications

Software tools SPSS, SigmaPlot
Application Miscellaneous
Organisms Homo sapiens
Diseases Heat Exhaustion, Muscular Diseases
Chemicals Creatine, Oxygen, Lactic Acid