## Similar protocols

## Protocol publication

[…] To reconstruct sources in frequency domain, the sources of the oscillatory activities were identified using a beamforming approach based on an adaptive spatial **filter** (Dynamic Imaging of Coherent Sources, DICS). We defined two distinct frequency and time windows according to the previous report: 10 Hz during cue presentation (1–2 s, latency 1 s; cue-alpha as described above) and 80 Hz during item presentation (2–3 s, latency 1 s; item-gamma as described above). Subsequently, for Fourier transformation, a multitaper method was used to compute spectrum for the entire segmented data length (1 s). For 10 Hz, a Hanning taper was applied, leading to 3 Hz smoothing for a 500 ms window, while three Slepian tapers for the gamma frequency (80 Hz) resulting in a 10 Hz spectral smoothing. The cross-spectral density matrices were calculated for each Fourier transformed data for each time window, frequency, condition, and subject.From each individual’s MRI, a realistically shaped single-shell description of the brain was constructed. Each subject’s brain volume was discretized into a grid with a 0.8 cm resolution and spatially normalized to the MNI brain template (International Consortium for Brain Mapping, Montreal Neurological Institute, Canada) by using SPM8 (http://www.fil.ion.ucl.ac.uk/spm). Then, the lead field was computed at every grid point. A spatial filter was formed for each grid point using the cross-spectral density matrices for the frequency of interest and the lead fields. In the end, the spatial distribution of oscillatory power was computed for each condition by applying the common filter for both conditions. The source power spectrum for each cue-alpha and item-gamma was divided by the average of source spectral power and source of ITI period (latency 1 s, 3–4 s) for corresponding spectral band at single trial level. Finally normalized source power for each cue-alpha and item-gamma was displayed in . [...] To present the relationship between cue-alpha and item-gamma, we modeled a weighted bipartite graph. Nodes were defined by region of interests (ROIs) using the Automated Anatomical Labeling (AAL) atlas consisting of 38 regions for each hemisphere after excluding subcortical and cerebellar areas (). AAL atlas space was interpolated into an individual source grid space, and then source power values were averaged within each ROI for each cue-alpha and item-gamma per condition and subject ().Let the number of ROI called p. The cue-alpha measurements is denoted as X consisting of , and item-gamma measurement is denoted as Y consisting of . The relationship between xi at i-th node and yjat j-th node is defined by the Pearson’s correlation coefficient , and its distance is as follows.
where each i and j is composed of , and the range of can be from 0 to 1.The correlation was computed across trials, while the number of trials between two task conditions (R and NR) was slightly different for each subject due to trial rejection for artifact removal. Considering that correlation coefficients are affected by the number of observations (i.e., trials), the number of trials was adjusted to the minimum number of trials between two conditions by collectin**g** trials randomly for each subject before calculating Pearson’s correlation coefficients (). According to the findings of the previous study, the decreased power of cue-alpha was supposed to represent the opening of a gate to the memory system, which was related to the increased power of item-gamma. Whereas, increased power of cue-alpha indicated blocking the ensuing encoding process, which was represented by decreased power of item-gamma. As pre-stimulus regulation over the following encoding process has been suggested to be operated by negative relationship between cue-alpha power and item-gamma power, we took into account only the negative relationship for further analysis in this study. Thus we assigned the maximum distance (i.e., 1) to . […]

## Pipeline specifications

Software tools | SPM, AAL |
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Application | Magnetic resonance imaging |