Computational protocol: Lineage 1 and 2 Strains of Encephalitic West Nile Virus, Central Europe

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Protocol publication

[…] Brain specimens from one 6-week-old goose, which died during the encephalitis outbreak in a Hungarian goose flock, and brain samples from a goshawk, which also died from encephalitis, were used for WNV nucleic acid determination. The brain samples were homogenized in ceramic mortars by using sterile quartz sand, and the homogenates were suspended in RNase-free distilled water. Samples were stored at –80°C until nucleic acid extraction was performed.Viral RNA was extracted from 140 μL of brain homogenates by using the QIAamp viral RNA Mini Kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) according to the manufacturer's instructions. First, a universal JEV-group specific oligonucleotide primer pair designed on the nonstructural protein 5 (NS5) and 3´-untranslated regions (UTR) of WNV (forward primer: 5´-GARTGGATGACVACRGAAGACATGCT-3´ and reverse primer: 5´-GGGGTCTCCTCTAACCTCTAGTCCTT-3´ []; ) was applied on the RNA extracts in a continuous RT-PCR system employing the QIAGEN OneStep RT-PCR Kit (Qiagen). Each 25-μL reaction mixture contained 5 μL of 5× buffer (final MgCl2 concentration 2.5 mmol/L), 0.4 mmol/L of each deoxynucleoside triphosphate, 10 U RNasin RNase Inhibitor (Promega, Madison, WI, USA), 20 pmol of the genomic and reverse primers, 1 μL enzyme mix (containing Omniscript and Sensiscript Reverse Transcriptases and HotStarTaq DNA polymerase) and 2.5 μL template RNA. Reverse transcription was carried out at 50°C for 30 min, followed by a denaturation step at 95°C for 15 min. Thereafter, the cDNA was amplified in 40 cycles of heat denaturation at 94°C for 40 s, primer annealing at 57°C for 50 s, and DNA extension at 72°C for 1 min, and the reaction was completed by a final extension for 7 min at 72°C. Reactions were performed in a Perkin-Elmer GeneAmp PCR System 2400 thermocycler (Wellesley, MA, USA) and in a Hybaid PCR Sprint thermocycler (Thermo Electron Corporation, Waltham, MA, USA).After RT-PCR, 10 μL of the amplicons was subjected to electrophoresis in a 1.2% Tris acetate-EDTA-agarose gel at 5 V/cm for 80 min. The gel was stained with ethidium bromide; bands were visualized under UV light and photographed with a Kodak DS Electrophoresis Documentation and Analysis System using the Kodak Digital Science 1D software program (Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, NY, USA). Product sizes were determined with reference to a 100-bp DNA ladder (Promega).Where clear PCR products of the previously calculated sizes were observed, the fragments were excised from the gel, and DNA was extracted by using the QIAquick Gel Extraction Kit (Qiagen). Fluorescence-based direct sequencing was performed in both directions on PCR products. Sequencing of PCR products was carried out with the ABI Prism Big Dye Terminator cycle sequencing ready reaction kit (Perkin-Elmer), according to the manufacturer's instructions, and an ABI Prism 310 genetic analyzer (Perkin-Elmer) automated sequencing system. Nucleotide sequences were identified by Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/blast) search against gene bank databases. Based on the sequence information obtained from the amplification products, complete WNV sequences that exhibited the highest nucleotide identities with the Hungarian genotypes were selected from the GenBank database to design primers that amplify overlapping RT-PCR products covering the entire genome of the strains. Oligonucleotide primers were designed with the help of the Primer Designer 4 for Windows 95 (Scientific and Educational Software, Version 4.10; Microsoft, Redmond, WA, USA) and were synthesized by GibcoBRL Life Technologies, Ltd. (Paisley, Scotland, UK). Detailed information on all primers is in the and . PCR amplification products were directly sequenced in both directions; the sequences were compiled and aligned to complete genome sequences of selected representatives of WNV lineages 1a, 1b, 2, and putative lineages 3 and 4 (listed in ). Phylogenetic analysis was performed by using the modified neighbor-joining method (ClustalX []; ), and trees were constructed to demonstrate the relationship between the Hungarian WNVs and other WNV strains ().The nucleotide sequences of the Hungarian WNV strains goose-Hungary/03 (Hu03) and goshawk-Hungary/04 (Hu04) were submitted to the GenBank database. They are available under accession numbers DQ118127 and DQ116961, respectively. […]

Pipeline specifications

Software tools BLASTN, Clustal W
Application Phylogenetics
Organisms West Nile virus, Accipiter gentilis, Homo sapiens
Diseases Encephalitis, Meningitis, West Nile Fever, HIV Infections