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## Similar protocols

## Protocol publication

[…] The images were preprocessed using **SPM**12. The first five volumes of each run were discarded before preprocessing. The remaining volumes were first realigned to the mean volume of the run, and went through slice-timing correction. The anatomical scan was co-registered to the mean volume, and then normalized to the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) template. The normalization parameters were applied to the slice-time corrected functional volumes, which were resampled to the spatial resolution of 3 mm × 3 mm × 3 mm). Finally, the resampled functional volumes were smoothed using a Gaussian kernel (FWHM = 8 mm).We carried out a general linear model (GLM)-based analysis on the preprocessed fMRI data at each voxel for each individual (i.e., first-level analysis in SPM). This GLM consisted of up to 10 regressors, divided into three groups. The first group consisted of three regressors time-locked to the onset of the color squares at each trial: the stick function of each trial; α (the lack of a subscript indicates that this variable refers to the trial-by-trial time course of this variable); and the predicted reward probability of the chosen color (i.e., p or 1 -p, if the participant later chose red or green, respectively). We chose to time-lock α to the onset of the color squares to ensure that by that time the learning rate had been updated. The second group consisted of five regressors time-locked to the onset of the feedback at each trial: the stick function; the reward feedback, r; the signed reward prediction error, pe (r - p if red square was chosen, r - 1 + p if green square was chosen); the updating in learning, α × pe; and the α × r interaction that accounted for the behavioral pattern of post-high reward increase of learning rate (see below). The last group consisted of two regressors time-locked to the response at each trial: the stick function and the response (left or right). All regressors were concatenated across the eight runs of this experiment. The regressors were also normalized to remove the confounds from mean and magnitude. The time courses of model estimates (e.g., α, p) were obtained using the model parameters fit at the individual level. Therefore, the fact that the imaging analyses included fewer participants than the behavioral analyses did not change the model estimates for each participant.To gauge the encoding strength of a variable (represented as a regressor), its regressor was first regressed against other regressors in the same group (i.e., sharing the same onset time) to remove shared variance so that the results could be uniquely attributed to the variable of interest. For example, to compute the encoding strength of α, the trial-by-trial time course of α was regressed against the other regressors in the same group. Then the post-regression α replaced the original α in the GLM.This GLM was then convolved with SPM’s hemodynamic function and appended with nuisance parameters, including six head movement parameters (translations and rotations relative to x, y, and z axes) and grand mean vectors for each run to remove run-specific baseline fMRI signal. The resulting GLM was subsequently fit to the preprocessed fMRI data to estimate the coefficient for the variable of interest’s parametric modulator, which reflected the variable’s encoding strength (one estimate at each voxel of each individual’s data). To remove nuisance results at white matter and cerebrospinal fluid voxels, the statistical results were filtered using a gray matter mask obtained by segmenting the template and only keeping voxels with gray matter concentrations greater than 0.01. Finally, we conducted group-level t-tests on the estimates of encoding strength across participants to assess the group-level encoding strength (i.e., second-level analysis in SPM). [...] Statistical results were corrected for multiple comparisons at P < 0.05 for combined searchlight classification accuracy and cluster extent thresholds, using the **AFNI** ClustSim algorithm. Specifically, 10,000 Monte Carlo simulations were conducted, each generating a random statistical map based on the smoothness of the map resulting from the group-level t-tests. For each randomly generated map, the algorithm searched for clusters using a voxel-wise P-value threshold of <0.001. The identified clusters were then grouped to produce a null distribution of cluster size. As a result, the ClustSim algorithm determined that an uncorrected voxel-wise P-value threshold of <0.001 in combination with a searchlight cluster size of 78–84 voxels (depending on the specific contrast) ensured a false discovery rate of <0.05. […]

## Pipeline specifications

Software tools | SPM, AFNI |
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Application | Functional magnetic resonance imaging |

Organisms | Homo sapiens |