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BestKeeper specifications


Unique identifier OMICS_02318
Name BestKeeper
Software type Application/Script
Interface Graphical user interface
Restrictions to use None
Operating system Unix/Linux, Mac OS, Windows
Computer skills Medium
Stability Stable
Maintained Yes


No version available


  • person_outline Michael Pfaffl

Publication for BestKeeper

BestKeeper citations


Pheromone gland development and monoterpenoid synthesis specific to oviparous females in the pea aphid

PMCID: 5946545
PMID: 29780614
DOI: 10.1186/s40851-018-0092-0

[…] reference genes, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), beta-actin, elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1a), and ribosomal protein L32 (rpL32), by three statistical software programs, geNorm [], BestKeeper [], and Normfinder []. As the results, the expression level of GAPDH was shown to be the most stable so that it was used as the reference gene.Data acquisition and analyses were performed b […]


An overview of technical considerations when using quantitative real time PCR analysis of gene expression in human exercise research

PLoS One
PMCID: 5944930
PMID: 29746477
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0196438
call_split See protocol

[…] ved by running a statistical analysis on the Cq value or using available software. Several software programs are available for reference gene evaluation using different analytical approaches, such as BestKeeper [], NormFinder [], and GeNorm [].In our laboratory, we have six commonly-used reference genes, ACTB, TATA-box binding protein (TBP), Cyclophilin, GAPDH, B2M, and 18S rRNA (). There are a fe […]


Evaluation and selection of internal reference genes from two and six row U.S. malting barley varieties throughout micromalting for use in RT qPCR

PLoS One
PMCID: 5940201
PMID: 29738567
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0196966
call_split See protocol

[…] tes from each biological replicate.The stability of candidate reference genes was analyzed using three software packages: geNorm (version 3.1) (, NormFinder and BestKeeper. NormFinder and BestKeeper are standalone program modules included in RefFinder (, a software package that includes a suite of programs to analyze qPCR data. […]


Selection and Validation of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real Time PCR Normalization Under Ethanol Stress Conditions in Oenococcus oeni SD 2a

Front Microbiol
PMCID: 5946679
PMID: 29780378
DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.00892

[…] Pfaffl et al. () have established Excel-based spreadsheet software named BestKeeper to determine the most stably expressed genes based on the standard deviation (SD) and the coefficient of variation (CV). The candidate reference genes can be ranked from the most stable one […]


Selection and evaluation of housekeeping genes as endogenous controls for quantification of mRNA transcripts in Theileria parva using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)

PLoS One
PMCID: 5935388
PMID: 29727459
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0196715

[…] he HKGs and rank them accordingly ( ReFfinder evaluates the reference gene stability through integrated computational programs, including geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper. The program then uses the comparative delta Ct method to compare and rank specific candidate endogenous control genes. Subsequently it then assigns an appropriate weight to each gene and c […]


The dehydration stress of couch grass is associated with its lipid metabolism, the induction of transporters and the re programming of development coordinated by ABA

BMC Genomics
PMCID: 5930771
PMID: 29720087
DOI: 10.1186/s12864-018-4700-3

[…] mean is calculated based on a particular weighting. The genes with the lowest value are considered the most stable. The final ranking of candidate reference genes according to GeNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper as well as RefFinder is displayed in Additional file : Table S2.To find out the optimal number of reference genes, we applied the pairwise variation (V) within GeNorm (see Additional file : […]


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BestKeeper institution(s)
Physiology, FML-Weihenstephan, Centre of Life and Food Science, Technical University of Munich, Germany

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