BOLT-REML statistics

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BOLT-REML specifications


Unique identifier OMICS_13777
Software type Package/Module
Interface Command line interface
Restrictions to use None
Input data A genotype
Input format BED, BIM, FAM
Output data A tab-delimited with many fields
Operating system Unix/Linux
License GNU General Public License version 3.0, MIT License
Computer skills Advanced
Version 2.2
Stability Stable
Maintained Yes



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  • person_outline Alkes Price <>

Publication for BOLT-REML

BOLT-REML in publications

PMCID: 5955978
PMID: 29769521
DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-04148-1

[…] is complex and largely affected by environmental contributions like the resting hr. a recent study including ~150,000 individuals in ukb has estimated a similar heritability of resting hr (21% using bolt-reml), which suggests that our calculations for exercise and recovery traits were sufficiently powered., bioinformatics analyses indicated several candidate genes at loci specifically associated […]

PMCID: 5832790
PMID: 29497042
DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-03395-6

[…] estimates were observed for hr recovery and hr increase (h2gsnp = 0.22). hr variability was much less heritable (h2gsnp = 0.12 and 0.14 for sdnn and rmssd) based on snp heritability estimates by bolt-reml (fig. ). all of the hr variables were highly correlated with each other (fig. ), though hr recovery and hr increase were more strongly correlated with each other (r = 0.6–0.9) than with hr […]

PMCID: 5750453
PMID: 29333270
DOI: 10.1038/cti.2017.54

[…] variants studied in a gwas, not just those with a strong association with disease risk. this is referred to as the snp-based disease heritability, which can be estimated using for example gcta, bolt-reml or ld score regression. in theory, the snp-based heritability can be lower than the twin-based heritability if genetic variants not tested (or not well tagged) in gwas contribute to disease […]

PMCID: 5717338
PMID: 29093210
DOI: 10.1098/rsob.170125

[…] risk variants., genetic correlation (rg) captures the extent to which genetic factors influence the covariance of two traits. multivariate methods for genetic correlation analysis include gcta [,], bolt-reml [] and mvlmm []. gcta and bolt-reml use restricted maximum-likelihood estimation to compute rg between two traits of any type (i.e. two binary, two continuous, or one binary and one […]

PMCID: 5621629
PMID: 28869591
DOI: 10.1038/ng.3949

[…] independent snps deeply imputed in the uk biobank, see ) and jointly explained ~12% of the variance in ebmd (, ). together the 307 snps explained about a third of ebmd snp heritability estimated by bolt-reml (h2snp = 0.36). although there was substantial inflation of the test statistics relative to the null (λgc = 1.37), linkage disequilibrium (ld) score regression indicated that the majority […]

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BOLT-REML institution(s)
Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA; Department of Mathematics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA; Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Biostatistics, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO, USA; The Queensland Brain Institute, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; School of Environmental and Rural Science, University of New England, Armidale, New South Wales, Australia; Department of Psychiatry and Human Genetics, Virginia Institute of Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA; MRC Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics, Institute of Psychological Medicine and Clinical Neurosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK
BOLT-REML funding source(s)
This work was supported by US National Institutes of Health (grants n°R01HG006399 and R01MH101244); US National Institutes of Health fellowship (grant n°F32HG007805); the Fannie and John Hertz Foundation; Members of the Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium; the Genetic Cluster Computer; the Netherlands Scientific Organization (grant n°NWO 480-05-003 PI); the Dutch Brain Foundation; the VU University Amsterdam and the Orchestra High Performance Compute Cluster at Harvard Medical School (grant n°NCRR 1S10RR028832-01).

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