Nanoscale characterization of local structures and defects in photonic crystals using synchrotron-based transmission soft X-ray microscopy
For the structural characterization of the polystyrene (PS)-based photonic crystals (PCs), fast and direct imaging capabilities of full field transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) were demonstrated at soft X-ray energy. PS-based PCs were prepared on an O2-plasma treated Si3N4 window and their local structures and defects were investigated using this label-free TXM technique with an image acquisition speed of ~10 sec/frame and marginal radiation damage. Micro-domains of face-centered cubic (FCC (111)) and hexagonal close-packed (HCP (0001)) structures were dominantly found in PS-based PCs, while point and line defects, FCC (100), and 12-fold symmetry structures were also identified as minor components. Additionally, in situ observation capability for hydrated samples and 3D tomographic reconstruction of TXM images were also demonstrated. This soft X-ray full field TXM technique with faster image acquisition speed, in situ observation, and 3D tomography capability can be complementally used with the other X-ray microscopic techniques (i.e., scanning transmission X-ray microscopy, STXM) as well as conventional characterization methods (e.g., electron microscopic and optical/fluorescence microscopic techniques) for clearer structure identification of self-assembled PCs and better understanding of the relationship between their structures and resultant optical properties.
[…] Measured TXM images were cropped and further processed by Java-based image processing and analysis software (ImageJ 1.41n, http://rsb.info.nih.gov/ij, Wayne Rasband, NIH, USA). The IMOD tomography package was used to align and reconstruct of images acquired from −30° to 50° with step 10°. Defect points in PCs were used for aligning and tracking to 3D reconstruct. Reconstruction was performed by a weighted back-projection algorithm in IMOD package. […]
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