A redox mechanism underlying nucleolar stress sensing by nucleophosmin
The nucleolus has been recently described as a stress sensor. The nucleoplasmic translocation of nucleolar protein nucleophosmin (NPM1) is a hallmark of nucleolar stress; however, the causes of this translocation and its connection to p53 activation are unclear. Using single live-cell imaging and the redox biosensors, we demonstrate that nucleolar oxidation is a general response to various cellular stresses. During nucleolar oxidation, NPM1 undergoes S-glutathionylation on cysteine 275, which triggers the dissociation of NPM1 from nucleolar nucleic acids. The C275S mutant NPM1, unable to be glutathionylated, remains in the nucleolus under nucleolar stress. Compared with wild-type NPM1 that can disrupt the p53–HDM2 interaction, the C275S mutant greatly compromises the activation of p53, highlighting that nucleoplasmic translocation of NPM1 is a prerequisite for stress-induced activation of p53. This study elucidates a redox mechanism for the nucleolar stress sensing and may help the development of therapeutic strategies.
Nucleoplasmic translocation of NPM1 is integral to nucleolar stress sensing. Here, the authors show that nucleolar oxidation is a general cellular stress response, and that oxidation-related glutathionylation of NPM1 triggers its translocation and facilitates p53 activation.
[…] NPM1-GSH complex was modelled in COOT software and images were prepared in PyMOL software (DeLano Scientific, http://www.pymol.org). […]