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In proteins, glutamate (Glu) residues are transformed into carboxyglutamate (Gla) residues in a process called carboxylation to aid in various cellular mechanisms. Carboxylation is a post-translational modification (PTM) of Glu residues in proteins wherein a carboxylic acid group is added into a substrate protein. The process of Carboxylation plays a significant role in a wide array of biological processes. It is primarily involved in the blood clotting cascade.
(Lu et al., 2011) Carboxylator: incorporating solvent-accessible surface area for identifying protein carboxylation sites. J Comput Aided Mol Des.