Plastids are essential organelles present in virtually all cells in plants and in green algae. The proteomes of plastids, and in particular of chloroplasts, have received significant amounts of attention in recent years. Various fractionation and mass spectrometry (MS) techniques have been applied to catalogue the chloroplast proteome and its membrane compartments. Neural network and hidden Markov models, in combination with experimentally derived filters, were used to try to predict the chloroplast subproteomes. Some of the many protein-protein interaction, as well as post-translational modifications have been characterized.