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Coevolution (covariation/correlated mutation) is the change of a biological object triggered by the change of a related object. For example, the coding genes of some interacting proteins are preserved or eliminated together in new species (Pellegrini et al., 1999), or have similar phylogenetic trees (Goh et al., 2000). At the amino acid level, some residues under physical or functional constraints exhibit correlated mutations (Gloor et al., 2005; Socolich et al., 2005; Suel et al., 2003). Source text: Yip et al., 2008.