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A coreceptor is a cell surface receptor that binds a signalling molecule in addition to a primary receptor in order to facilitate ligand recognition and initiate biological processes, such as entry of a pathogen into a host cell. Currently, the two most prominent areas of co-receptor research are investigations regarding HIV and cancer. HIV research is highly focused on the adaption of HIV strains to a variety of host co-receptors. Bioinformatics approaches are increasingly being used to identify and understand the genetic variation underlying changes in HIV-1 biological phenotype. The variable regions of the viral envelope are the major determinant of virus coreceptor usage and cell tropism.
(Jensen, M.A. and van 't Wout, 2003) Predicting HIV-1 coreceptor usage with sequence analysis. AIDS Rev.