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Cryo-EM images are usually collected in defocused condition for increased phase contrast. These images are modulated in frequency space by the phase CTF (Contrast Transfer Function). Image CTF must be estimated for later deconvolution. Currently, several software for CTF estimation is available (e.g. ctffind, gctf, e2ctf.py).
(Murata., 2018) Cryo-electron microscopy for structural analysis of dynamic biological macromolecules. Biochemica et Biophysica Acta (BBA).