Computational protocol: The effect of hemostatic dressing prototypes for the uniformed services on selected blood coagulation parameters in pigs

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[…] The experiment was performed on 30 pigs divided into five groups. Prototypes of hemostatic dressings were tested in three groups of animals. Animals were premedicated with atropine (Atropinum Sulfuricum, Polfa-Warszawa, Warsaw, Poland) at 0.05 mg/kg body weight intramuscular (BW IM), and azaperone (Stresnil, Janssen Pharmaceutica N.V. Tumhoutseweg, Beerse, Belgium) at 2.5 mg/kg BW IM. General anesthesia was induced with ketamine (Bioketan, Vetoquinol, Gorzów Wielkopolski, Poland) at 8 mg/kg BW IM and maintained with propofol (Scanofol, Vetoquinol, Gorzów Wielkopolski, Poland) at 10 mg/kg body weight intravenous (BW IV). Tracheal intubation with normoventilation was performed. The surgery area in the region of the left inguinal fossa was prepared, and a lateral incision was made across the femoral artery. A selected hemostatic dressing was applied to the wound. Group I animals were treated with the OBR/G/S sponge (dressing material sponge made of Na–Ca chitosan/algal composite microfibers and nanofibers), group II pigs—with OBR/MBT/S (tactic gauze modified with a polymer mixture of Na–Ca chitosan/algal composite microfibers and nanofibers) impregnated with medium levels of procoagulants (22.9 g/m2), and group III animals—with OBR/MS/S (seton gauze modified with a polymer mixture of Na–Ca chitosan/algal composite microfibers and nanofibers) impregnated with medium levels of procoagulants (18.0 g/m2). The coagulants in all dressings were chitosan (ChitoClear hqg 95) and sodium alginate (Protanal LF10/60 FT). Hemostatic dressings were sterilized by electron beam irradiation. They were used to control bleeding from surgically incised femoral arteries in pigs. The animals were transported to the post-operative recovery room after bleeding had stopped. Group IV animals were treated with non-hemostatic dressing. In all group IV pigs, the applied dressing did not stop bleeding, and the animals died 1–12 h after surgery. The control group consisted of healthy animals whose femoral arteries were not incised and which were not treated with the hemostatic dressings. Blood samples were collected from control group pigs for comparative analyses.Blood for hematology was collected into test tubes coated with EDTAK2 (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid dipotassium salt dehydrate), and blood for coagulation tests was collected into test tubes containing 3.2% sodium citrate. Blood was sampled from each animal in five replications to evaluate changes in coagulation and fibrinolytic systems: before the surgical procedure, 1 h after the procedure, 12 h after the procedure, 24 h after the procedure, and 7 days after the procedure.The following parameters were determined in hematology tests: white blood cell counts (WBC), red blood cell counts (RBC), hematocrit (Hct), hemoglobin concentrations (Hgb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations (MCHC), platelet counts (PLT) and mean platelet volume (MPV).The following parameters were determined in coagulation tests: activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT), fibrinogen concentrations (FIB), d-dimer concentrations (DD), antithrombin III activity (ATIII) and thrombin–antithrombin complex concentrations (TAT).Data were expressed as the mean (±SD) for six animals per group. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by the Bonferroni post hoc test. SigmaPlot Software Version 12.0 (Systat Software Inc., San Jose, USA) was used for statistical analysis. The power analysis was performed using G*Power Software version 3.1.9.2. […]

Pipeline specifications

Software tools SigmaPlot, G*Power
Application Miscellaneous
Organisms Sus scrofa