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De novo peptide sequencing by tandem mass (MS/MS) spectrometry is a valuable alternative to MS/MS database search. In contrast to the database search approach that utilizes the information from proteome, the de novo sequencing approach attempts to identify peptides only using the information from the input spectrum. Hence, most de novo sequencing algorithms are based on the prior knowledge of the fragmentation characteristics (e.g. ion types and their propensities) of MS/MS spectra (Frank, 2009; Frank and Pevzner, 2005; Ma et al., 2003). Source text: Jeong et al., 2013.