Computational protocol: Pulmonary manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus patients with and without antiphospholipid syndrome

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Protocol publication

[…] This was a cross sectional comparative study conducted in King Khaled University Hospital/King Saud University from June 2012 to March 2014. A total of ninety six (96) patients, seen in the rheumatology out-patient clinic or admitted in the hospital with a diagnosis of SLE or SLE with APS were included. Diagnosis of SLE was made according to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for classification of SLE,. while diagnosis of APS was made according to the international consensus statement on an update of classification criteria for APS. Patients presented with respiratory symptoms were included in the study. These patients were divided into two groups, group one SLE (n=67) and group two SLE with APS (n=29) patients. We excluded patients with any other connective tissue disease and pregnant females.Sample size was calculated, using G*Power Version 3.1.9.2 the total sample size was computed at 108, with error probability set at 0.05, and power set at 0.8. Since we were only able to come up with 96 subjects, the actual power of the study is 0.75.A detailed assessment form was utilized to collect the demographic and clinical data of the patients. Complete history and physical examination was performed and relevant investigations were ordered. Involvement of other organs such as kidneys, brain, skin, joints, hematological and gastrointestinal was also noted. Complete blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C- reactive proteins, coagulation profile, renal function tests, liver function tests, urine analysis and autoantibody profiles were taken in all patients. Where indicated after doing renal biosy results were also obtained. Arterial blood gases (ABGs), pulmonary function tests (PFTs), and six minute walk distance (6MWDT) was taken to establish functional capacity. Plain chest x-rays, high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and where indicated ventilation perfusion scan (V/Q scan) and echocardiography were taken. Pulmonary hypertension was measured and interpreted based on the diameter of the main pulmonary arteries and its peripheral branches on CT angiography and on echocariography by applying the method of differential pressure of tricuspid regurgitation, pulmonary artery dilatation and right ventricular enlargement. Statistical analysis: Descriptive statistics (means, standard deviation, and percentages) were used to describe the quantitative and categorical study variables. Chi- square statistics and the Fisher’s exact test were used for categorical data. A two-sided p <0.05 was considered statistically significant. SPSS version 18 (SPSS inc. Chicago, IL, USA) was used for all analysis. […]

Pipeline specifications

Software tools G*Power, SPSS
Applications Miscellaneous, Computerized tomography scan imaging
Organisms Homo sapiens, Dipturus trachyderma
Diseases Hypertension, Hypertension, Pulmonary, Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic, Pulmonary Embolism, Antiphospholipid Syndrome, Venous Thrombosis