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A hand-curated antimicrobial resistance (AMR) database and annotation structure. MEGARes provides a foundation for the development of high throughput acyclical classifiers and hierarchical statistical analysis of big data. MEGARes can be browsed as a stand-alone resource through the website or can be easily integrated into sequence analysis pipelines through download. MEGARes has been integrated to the AmrPlusPlus pipeline to facilitate increased use of metagenomic datasets in resistome analyses.

GEAR / Genomic Elements Associated with drug Resistance

Provides comprehensive information about genomic elements that are responsible for drug resistance. GEAR contains 1631 associations between 201 human drugs and 758 genes, 106 associations between 29 human drugs and 66 miRNAs, and 44 associations between 17 human drugs and 22 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Different relationships contained in the database are extracted from primary literature with text mining and manually curated.

CARD / Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database

Integrates disparate molecular and sequence data and provides a unique organizing principle in the form of the Antibiotic. CARD is a manually curated resource containing high quality reference data on the molecular basis of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), with an emphasis on the genes, proteins and mutations involved in AMR. CARD is ontologically structured, model centric, and spans the breadth of AMR drug classes and resistance mechanisms, including intrinsic, mutation-driven and acquired resistance.

BLDB / Beta-Lactamase Database

Gathers sequence information, biochemical and structural data on all the currently known Beta-Lactamase (BL). BLDB is a web-based database that consists of: (i) a list of classes and sub-classes of BLs, with their corresponding BL families, (ii) a table containing all three-dimensional structures of BLs reported in the Protein Data Bank (PDB), (iii) the synthetic mutants described for each enzyme in the literature, with bibliographical information and links to PDB structures and hydrolytic profiles and (iv) a protein- and nucleotide-based BLAST search.


Displays the data on more than 1500 published gut metagenomes of world populations including both healthy subjects and patients. ResistoMap is a Web-based interactive visualization of the presence of genetic determinants conferring resistance to antibiotics, biocides and heavy metals in human gut microbiota. This resource is a perspective tool for exploring the global landscape of gut resistome in order to identify national traits in antibiotic intake, correlating the resistome composition with various external factors.


Provides information on Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) proteins. BioAfrica is a resource collaborating with Swiss-Prot ViralZone group of the Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (SIB). The database provides webpages divided into six sections. These are: (i) General Overview, (ii) Protein Function and Host–Virus Protein Interactions, (iii) Genomic Location and Protein Sequence, (iv) Protein Domains/Folds/Motifs, (v) HIV antiretrovirals (ARVs) and Drug Resistance Mutations and (vi) Primary and Secondary Database Entries.

u-CARE / user-friendly Comprehensive Antibiotic resistance Repository of Escherichia coli

Provides a manually curated Escherichia coli multiple drug resistant (MDR) gene knowledge-base. u-CARE was developed to provide aid in understanding the aforementioned bacterial resistance mechanism. This resource includes curated catalogue of more than 50 antibiotics with reported resistance, about 100 genes, transcription factors and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) involved in multiple drug resistance of this pathogen.


Facilitates comprehensive molecular annotation and discovery of novel beta-lactamases. As against the limited scope of other existing similar databases, CBMAR provides information useful for molecular and biochemical characterization of each family of beta-lactamase. The basic architecture of CBMAR is based on Ambler classification, which divides beta-lactamases as serine (Classes A, C and D) and metallo-beta-lactamases (Class B). Each class is further divided into several families on the basis of their hydrolytic character. In CBMAR, each family is annotated with (i) sequence variability, (ii) antibiotic resistance profile, (iii) inhibitor susceptibility, (iv) active site, (v) family fingerprints, (vi) mutational profile, (vii) variants, (viii) gene location, (ix) phylogenetic tree and several other features. Each entry also has external links to the relevant protein/nucleotide sequence and structure databases.

HIV databases

Contains comprehensive data on HIV genetic sequences and immunological epitopes. HIV databases gives access to a large number of tools that can be used to analyze and visualize these data. The HIV Sequence Database focuses on five primary goals: (i) collecting HIV and SIV sequence data (all sequences since 1987), (ii) curating and annotating this data, and making it available to the scientific community, (iii) computer analysis of HIV and related sequences, (iv) production of software for the analysis of (sequence) data, and (v) the data and analyses on this site and published in a yearly printed publication, the HIV sequence Compendium, which is available free of charge.

HPSMD / HIV Positive Selection Mutation Database

Provides detailed selection pressure maps of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) proteins involved in drug resistance. HPSMD is a large-scale database providing data with several possible applications. These applications can be as prediction of mutations contributing to drug resistance, distinguishing primary drug resistance mutations from accessory mutations rate measurements of fast versus slow evolutionary pathways to multiple drug resistance or the evolutionary dynamics of different types of mutations as the virus moves from untreated to drug-treated conditions and back.