Computational protocol: Linking Resting-State Networks in the Prefrontal Cortex to Executive Function: A Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy Study

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[…] During the resting state, participants were required to sit still with eyes closed but not fall asleep, and to think of nothing as far as possible. The NIRS data collection lasted 12 min for each participant.A 24 channel continuous wave system (ETG-4000 Hitachi Medical Co., Japan) was used for resting-state fNIRS data acquisition. The instrument consisted of five light emitters (each generated two wavelengths of near-infrared light: 760 and 850 nm) and four detectors on each hemisphere which allowed for 24 different measurement channels. During the experiment, the probes were embedded in two rubber shells, which were covered with a swimming cap to keep it attached to the participant's head. The inter-optode distance was 30 mm and the sampling rate was set to 10 Hz. The measurement of neural activities approximately 15–25 mm beneath the scalp was achieved.A 3D digitizer (EZT-DM401, Hitachi Medical Corporation, Japan) was used to complete the 3 dimensional spatial registration of NIRS channel locations. The estimated corresponding location of each NIRS channel in the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) space was obtained using the probabilistic registration method (Singh et al., ). The NIRS channels covered the bilateral PFC, including the dorsal superior frontal gyrus (SFG), the middle frontal gyrus (MFG), the triangular inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and the left orbital MFG (Brodmann's Areas 9, 10, 45, 46) (Figure ). The Brodmann's Areas (MRIcro), anatomical label and MNI coordinates were listed in Table .The raw optical signal was firstly converted to hemoglobin signal using the modified Beer-Lambert Law conducted by NIRS-SPM (Ye et al., ). To obtain relatively steady signals, the first 2-min of data for each participant were discarded. Preprocessing was conducted by the resting-state fMRI data analysis toolkit (REST) ( Briefly, after removing the linear trend, in order to reduce low-frequency drift and high-frequency physiological noise, the hemoglobin data were passed through a band-pass filter (0.009–0.08 Hz) which was consistent with previous fNIRS study (Niu et al., ). Although both oxygenated hemoglobin ([oxy-Hb]) and deoxygenated hemoglobin ([deoxy-Hb]) signals were obtained in this study, we only chose [oxy-Hb] data to perform further analyses due to its superior signal-to-noise ratio relative to [deoxy-Hb] (Strangman et al., ; Homae et al., ). […]

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