Prevalence and genetic characteristics of Saffold cardiovirus in China from 2009 to 2012
The epidemiology and clinical features of the Saffold cardiovirus (SAFV) remain ambiguous. The present study was designed to systematically and intensively investigate the epidemiological features of SAFV in pediatric patients in China. Three cohorts of pediatric patients were recruited from 2009 to 2012. Cohort 1 comprised patients with acute respiratory tract infections. Cohort 2 comprised patients with diarrhea. Cohort 3 comprised hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) patients. A total of 115 patients (1.6%) among 6052 (17/1647, 12/2013, and 86/2392 in cohorts 1, 2, and 3, respectively) were SAFV-positive. The samples from 82 SAFV-positive patients were successfully sequenced, and four genotypes were identified: 8 SAFV-1, 41 SAFV-2, 29 SAFV-3, and 4 SAFV-6. A significantly higher detection rate was found in the HFMD patients than in other two cohorts (both P <0.001). A higher frequency of severe clinical outcome and nervous system manifestation were also observed in the SAFV-positive HFMD patients. Additionally, 6 (3.5%) cerebrospinal fluid and 7 (2.2%) serum samples from the HFMD-associated encephalitis patients were SAFV-positive. Based on the VP1 sequences, all four genotypes displayed distinct geographical clustering. SAFV infection might be associated with a wide clinical spectrum and contribute to HFMD.
[…] The sequences obtained from the study were submitted to NCBI with the GenBank Accession Numbers KJ944637–KJ944718. The genomic sequences were assembled using Lasergene's DNA SeqMan software (version 7.1.0, DNA Star Inc. Madison, WI, USA). The MEGA program (version 6.0, Sudhir Kumar, Arizona State University) was used for alignments and phylogenetic tree construction by maximum likelihood method using 1000 bootstrap pseudo replicates. Nucleotide identities among strains were calculated using BioEdit (version 7.13, www.mbio.ncsu.edu/bioedit/bioedit.html). […]
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