Computational protocol: Spread of TEM, VIM, SHV, and CTX-M β-Lactamases in Imipenem-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli Isolated from Egyptian Hospitals

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Protocol publication

[…] The obtained chromatogram sequencing files were inspected and corrected using the software application Chromas 2.3 (Technelysium, Helensvale, Australia) and JalView (2.8).The sequences obtained from our samples were aligned with GenBank sequences. The phylogenetic tree for each sequence was obtained by performing neighbor-joining analysis of the alignment of sequences with reference strains (accession numbers/country of origin) that were retrieved from GenBank. The studied strains were marked by the sign [■]. Meanwhile, the reference sequences were marked by the sign [▲].The BLAST and FASTA programs of the National Center for Biotechnology Information ( were used to search databases for similar nucleotide sequences []. Multiple sequence alignments of the nucleic acid were carried out using the ClustalW program. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 20.0, χ 2 = chi-square test, and P values < 0.05 were considered significant. […]

Pipeline specifications

Software tools Jalview, Clustal W
Application Phylogenetics
Organisms Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Diseases Pneumonia
Chemicals Nucleotides, Imipenem