Computational protocol: Effect of Short-Term Pranayama and Meditation on Cardiovascular Functions in Healthy Individuals

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[…] The present study was conducted in the Department of Physiology. Ethical clearance for the study protocol was obtained from the Institute ethical committee.Fifty healthy subjects of age group 20–60 years were selected randomly from a group of participants visiting the yoga center who had not yet started practicing yoga but were keen on learning. The same subjects were chosen as both study as well as control group in order to minimize the confounding factors and make the study more reproducible.Subjects who were trained in yoga before, subjects with history of respiratory, cardiovascular and renal diseases, and diabetes were excluded from the study. Subjects who smoke and consume alcohol or any drugs were also excluded from the study. The subjects were selected after taking a detailed clinical history. An informed consent was obtained from all the members. Physical characteristics such as age, height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) were obtained. BMI was calculated as weight (kg) / height (m)2. Pulse rate (PR) and blood pressure (BP) were recorded before practice of pranayama and meditation.The subjects were asked to relax physically and mentally for 30 minutes in supine position in a silent room. In the same position, the pulse rate and the blood pressure were recorded. The pulse rate in beats per minute was recorded in the right radial artery by palpatory method for whole one minute. The systemic arterial blood pressure in millimeter of mercury (Hg) was recorded with a sphygmomanometer (Diamond), in the right upper limb by auscultatory method. Similarly, three readings of each subject's pulse rate and systemic blood pressure were taken at an interval of 15 minutes each and average of the three values calculated. The mean arterial (blood) pressure (MAP=DBP+1/3PP) was also calculated. All the parameters were recorded between 5 and 6 pm in order to avoid circadian variations.All the subjects were under uniform dietary habits and received same yoga training for a period of 15 days for 2 hours daily between 6 and 8 pm. The subjects were instructed not to change their lifestyle or perform any other physical exercises during yoga training.The yoga practice schedule consisted of Prayer - 10 mins.Pranayama - 45 mins.Short break - 5 mins.Lecture or film on fundamentals in nutrition, stress management, meditation and yogic attitude in daily life - 30 mins.Meditation - 20 mins.Prayer - 10 mins. Prayer - 10 mins.Pranayama - 45 mins.Short break - 5 mins.Lecture or film on fundamentals in nutrition, stress management, meditation and yogic attitude in daily life - 30 mins.Meditation - 20 mins.Prayer - 10 mins.The different types of Pranayama[] practiced were – Vibhagiya Pranayama (sectional breathing) Adama (Kanista) Vibhagiya Pranayama (diaphragmatic/abdominal breathing)Madhyama Vibhagiya Pranayama (Thoracic/intercostal breathing)Aadya (Jesta) Vibhagiya Pranayama (upper lobar/clavicular breathing)Poorna mudra Pranayama (Full yogic breathing) Nadishuddi Pranayama (Alternate nostril breathing)Kapalabathi Kriya (cleansing breath)Bahya Pranayama (the external breathing)Cooling Pranayama Sitali PranayamaSitkari Pranayama Vibhagiya Pranayama (sectional breathing) Adama (Kanista) Vibhagiya Pranayama (diaphragmatic/abdominal breathing)Madhyama Vibhagiya Pranayama (Thoracic/intercostal breathing)Aadya (Jesta) Vibhagiya Pranayama (upper lobar/clavicular breathing)Poorna mudra Pranayama (Full yogic breathing) Adama (Kanista) Vibhagiya Pranayama (diaphragmatic/abdominal breathing)Madhyama Vibhagiya Pranayama (Thoracic/intercostal breathing)Aadya (Jesta) Vibhagiya Pranayama (upper lobar/clavicular breathing)Poorna mudra Pranayama (Full yogic breathing)Nadishuddi Pranayama (Alternate nostril breathing)Kapalabathi Kriya (cleansing breath)Bahya Pranayama (the external breathing)Cooling Pranayama Sitali PranayamaSitkari Pranayama Sitali PranayamaSitkari PranayamaThe session was concluded by meditation[] and prayer.After 15 days, once again the cardiovascular status was assessed clinically in terms of PR and BP, as done before the start of pranayama and meditation training.Results were presented as Mean SD. Student's t test was used to find the significance of study parameters by using SPSS 15.0 version. P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. […]

Pipeline specifications

Software tools MuDRA, SPSS
Applications Drug design, Miscellaneous
Organisms Homo sapiens