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evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non-supervised Orthologous Groups eggNOG


Provides orthologous groups (OGs) of proteins at different taxonomic levels, each with integrated and summarized functional annotations. Developments since the latest public release include changes to the algorithm for creating OGs across taxonomic levels, making nested groups hierarchically consistent. This allows for a better propagation of functional terms across nested OGs and led to the novel annotation of 95 890 previously uncharacterized OGs, increasing overall annotation coverage from 67% to 72%. The functional annotations of OGs have been expanded to also provide Gene Ontology terms, KEGG pathways and SMART/Pfam domains for each group. Moreover, eggNOG now provides pairwise orthology relationships within OGs based on analysis of phylogenetic trees. We have also incorporated a framework for quickly mapping novel sequences to OGs based on precomputed HMM profiles. Finally, eggNOG version 4.5 incorporates a novel data set spanning 2605 viral OGs, covering 5228 proteins from 352 viral proteomes.

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eggNOG classification

eggNOG specifications

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eggNOG support


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Structural and Computational Biology Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg, Germany; Institute of Molecular Life Sciences, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; Bioinformatics/Systems Biology Group, Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (SIB), Zurich, Switzerland; The Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Protein Research, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Institute of Bioinformatics and Systems Biology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health (GmbH), Neuherberg, Germany; CUBE—Division of Computational Systems Biology, Department of Microbiology and Ecosystem Science, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; Daniel K. Inouye Center for Microbial Oceanography: Research and Education, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, USA; Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Dresden, Germany; Germany Molecular Medicine Partnership Unit (MMPU), University Hospital Heidelberg and European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg, Germany; Max Delbrück Centre for Molecular Medicine, Berlin, Germany

Funding source(s)

European Commission MetaCardis [FP7-HEALTH-305312]; International Human Microbiome [HEALTH-FP7-2010-261376]; LTFCOFUND2013 [PCOFUND-GA-2013-609409]; European Research Council CancerBiome project [contract number 268985]; European Molecular Biology Organization [ALTF 721-2015]; CellNetworks (Excellence Initiative of the University of Heidelberg); Novo Nordisk Foundation [NNF14CC0001]; European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL)

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