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Genome annotation information is available from many sources including publications on the sequencing and annotation of genes for whole genomes, individual chromosomes, and whole-genome annotation computed by multiple bioinformatics groups. Ensembl and the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) independently developed computational processes to annotate vertebrate genomes (Kitts 2002; Potter et al. 2004). Both pipelines predict genes, transcripts, and proteins based on interpretations of gene prediction programs, transcript alignments, and protein alignments. In addition, manual annotation is provided by the Havana group at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute (WTSI) and the Reference Sequence (RefSeq) group at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI).
(Kitts, 2002) The NCBI handbook : Genome assembly and annotation process. National Center for Biotechnology Information.
(Potter et al., 2004) The Ensembl analysis pipeline. Genome Res.
(Pruitt et al., 2009) The consensus coding sequence (CCDS) project: Identifying a common protein-coding gene set for the human and mouse genomes. Genome Res.