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Phase contrast microscopy (PCM) is widely used as the de facto light microscopy modality for the inspection of adherent cell cultures. PCM enables the observation of transparent cellular specimens by transforming phase shifts (induced by differences in refractive index between the sample and the surrounding medium) into changes in amplitude, which are readily detectable by the human eye or a digital camera (Zernike 1942). Automated segmentation of PCM images is made challenging by artefacts that are intrinsic to the method (Otaki 2000). The ‘shade-off effect’ results in low contrast between the interior of cellular objects and the image background, and bright halo artefacts around cellular objects commonly occur.
(Jaccard., 2017) Segmentation of phase contrast microscopy images based on multi-scale local Basic Image Features histograms. Comput methods Biochem Biomed Eng Imaging Vis.