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MSM specifications


Unique identifier OMICS_16618
Name MSM
Alternative name Multiple Source Method
Interface Web user interface
Restrictions to use None
Input data ASCII, CSV
Programming languages Perl, R
Computer skills Basic
Stability Stable
Maintained Yes



  • person_outline U Harttig

Publication for Multiple Source Method

MSM citations


Development of a Diet Quality Index Adapted for Pregnant Women

PMCID: 5958961
DOI: 10.11606/S1518-8787.2018052000184

[…] women using predictive equations and we adopted the Goldberg method to estimate the sub-report of energy intake (EI). The result of the EI:BMR ratio ≤ 1.35 was considered as a sub-report.We used the Multiple Source Method (MSM) to estimate the usual diet. The MSM is a program of statistical modeling technique, developed by the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). T […]


Total and Added Sugar Intake: Assessment in Eight Latin American Countries

PMCID: 5946174
PMID: 29565308
DOI: 10.3390/nu10040389

[…] Usual dietary intake of sugars was estimated using the Multiple Source Method, a web-based tool developed by researchers at the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) for estimating usual dietary intakes of nutrients and foods […]


Influence of Haem, Non Haem, and Total Iron Intake on Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components: A Population Based Study

PMCID: 5872732
PMID: 29518910
DOI: 10.3390/nu10030314

[…] for continuous variables and as percentages for categorical variables. The nutrients were adjusted for total energy intake using a nutrient residual model [], and usual intake was estimated using the Multiple Source Method (MSM) []. This web-based tool provides usual nutrient intake distributions by removing intrapersonal variability in three steps. The first step estimates the probability of nutr […]


Dietary flavonoid intake in older adults: how many days of dietary assessment are required and what is the impact of seasonality?

PMCID: 5767040
PMID: 29329536
DOI: 10.1186/s12937-017-0309-7

[…] This narrows the population distribution at the extreme ends due to accounting for within-individual variation. More sophisticated statistical modelling methods to account for variability include the Multiple Source Method (MSM) [] and National Cancer Institute (NCI) [] methods. However, these methods are usually applied to dietary information obtained by repeated short-term instruments, such as a […]


Dietary Patterns in European and Brazilian Adolescents: Comparisons and Associations with Socioeconomic Factors

PMCID: 5793285
PMID: 29315272
DOI: 10.3390/nu10010057

[…] and energy intakes ranged from 0.86–0.91 []. The adolescents completed two 24 H-DR [] during school period and within a time span of two weeks; on both occasions, trained dietitians were present. The Multiple Source Method [] was used to calculate usual energy intake removing the effect of day-to-day within-person variability and random error in the recalls. The 43 food groups included in the HELE […]


Protein Adequacy Is Primarily a Matter of Protein Quantity, Not Quality: Modeling an Increase in Plant:Animal Protein Ratio in French Adults

PMCID: 5748783
PMID: 29292749
DOI: 10.3390/nu9121333

[…] cores concept. If the protein adequacy was adjusted for amino acid score, the protein adequacy would have been equal to the lysine adequacy from a mean plant protein content of 70% in the model A.The Multiple Source Method used to assess usual protein and amino acids intake hypothesizes a statistical independence between the short-term records of food intake [], whereas the seven days of records i […]


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MSM institution(s)
Department of Epidemiology, German Institute of Human Nutrition, Potsdam-Rehbruecke (DIFE), Nuthetal, Germany
MSM funding source(s)
Supported by the EFCOVAL Consortium; the Sixth Framework Program for the EFCOVAL project (FOODCT-2006-022895).

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