Enables discovery and sequence mapping of modifications to target proteins known to be represented in the analysis or identified by Sequest. P-Mod matches MS/MS spectra to peptide sequences in a search list. For spectra of modified peptides, P-Mod calculates mass differences between search peptide sequences and MS/MS precursors and localizes the mass shift to a sequence position in the peptide. Because modifications are detected as mass shifts, P-Mod does not require the user to guess at masses or sequence locations of modifications. P-Mod uses extreme value statistics to assign p value estimates to sequence-to-spectrum matches. The reported p values are scaled to account for the number of comparisons, so that error rates do not increase with the expanded search lists that result from incorporating potential peptide modifications.