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Pseudogenes are defined as defunct genomic loci with sequence similarity to functional genes but lacking coding potential due to the presence of disruptive mutations such as frame shifts and premature stop codons (Mighell et al., 2000; Harrison et al., 2001; Echols et al., 2002; Balakirev and Ayala, 2003). The functional paralogs of pseudogenes are often referred to as parent genes.
(Mighell et al., 2000) Vertebrate pseudogenes. FEBS Lett.
(Harrison et al., 2001) Digging for dead genes: an analysis of the characteristics of the pseudogene population in the Caenorhabditis elegans genome. Nucleic Acids Res.
(Echols et al., 2002) Comprehensive analysis of amino acid and nucleotide composition in eukaryotic genomes, comparing genes and pseudogenes. Nucleic Acids Res.
(Balakirev and Ayala, 2003) Pseudogenes: are they "junk" or functional DNA? Annu Rev Genet.
(Pei et al., 2012) The GENCODE pseudogene resource. Genome Biol.