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Gene duplication is a major contributor to the origin of adaptive evolutionary novelties (Ohno 1970; Long et al. 2003). Small-scale duplications can be created by chromosome segmental duplications, a DNA-mediated mechanism (reviewed in [Prince and Pickett 2002; Marques-Bonet et al., 2009]), or through reverse transcription of mature RNA intermediates, a mechanism known as retrotransposition or retroduplication of mRNAs (Esnault et al. 2000).
(Ohno, 1970) Evolution by gene duplication. Springer.
(Long et al., 2003) The origin of new genes: glimpses from the young and old. Nat Rev Genet.
(Prince and Pickett, 2002) Splitting pairs: the diverging fates of duplicated genes. Nat Rev Genet.
(Marques-Bonet et al., 2009) The origins and impact of primate segmental duplications. Trends Genet.
(Esnault et al., 2000) Human LINE retrotransposons generate processed pseudogenes. Nat Genet.
(Navarro and Galante, 2015) A Genome-Wide Landscape of Retrocopies in Primate Genomes. Genome Biol Evol.