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Tandem repeats (TRs) are consecutive sequence duplicates abundant in both coding and noncoding genomic sequences. Short TRs of DNA, known as microsatellites, have been discovered by accident in human samples (Wyman and White, 1980), and since have been used successfully as markers in forensics and for genetic profiling (Jeffreys et al., 1985). Although most TRs are found in noncoding sequences, mounting evidence suggests their substantial presence in protein coding genes: at least in 14% of proteins in all kingdoms of life, and of much higher frequency in eukaryotes (Marcotte et al., 1999). Source text: Schaper et al., 2012.